History of Education in Ukraine

About life in Ukraine on January 21st, 2011 6 Comments

History of education in Ukraine is closely linked to the whole history of the Ukrainian people.
Its foundation was laid in the XVI-XVII centuries, when the urban population of Ukraine began to organize the fraternities. These organizations opened schools, printing houses, around which the culture forces have been gathering. The spread of education contributed the printing uprising in Ukraine in the II half of the XVI century.

kiev mohyla academyIn 1632, by combining the Kiev and the Lavra brotherhood schools it was established the first institution of higher education in Ukraine – Kiev-Mohyla College, which accepted mainly children of Ukrainian superior people, government officials, priests, the rich burghers and the Cossacks. Education in it was mostly general education. The training course lasted 12 years and was divided into 8 classes. Students had the philological training. They studied languages, mastered the poetic and rhetorical skills, studied classical Greek and Roman literature, history, geography, philosophy and theology. Kiev College has played an important role in strengthening cultural ties between the Ukrainian people and South Slavic and other peoples.  The Serbs, Montenegrins, Bulgarians, Moldovans, Greeks, Dalmatians have been studying in Ukraine. Some students and teachers of the Kiev College were trained in Poland, France, Italy, Britain, Germany and Hungary. The College maintained scientific ties with educational centers in Krakow, Halle, Magdeburg, Constantinople, etc.

A certain role in the development of education in the Western Ukrainian lands was played by University of Lvov. The University had two divisions – the philosophical and theological. Education at the University ended with getting a scientific degree – Licensed specialist, Bachelor, Master and PhD. In the second half of the XVII th century there were opened the Departments of Mathematics, Physics and Mathematics, established an astronomical observatory, and implemented the study of Polish, French and German languages, geography and history.

In 1809 Kyiv high school was founded, which later became the higher educational institution. In 1805 the Kharkov University was opened. In the first quarter of the XIX century such schools as Krementz Lyceum (1803), Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa (1817), High School of Sciences of Duke IA Bezborodko in Nezhyn (1820) were founded. In 1834, the University of Kiev was created. The Chernovtsy University was established in 1874.

kharkov universityThe Kharkov University was founded in 1805 on the initiative VN Karazin. In its structure there were 4 faculties (Mathematics and Physics, History and Philology, Medicine and Law), 8 scientific societies, astronomical observatory and the fundamental library. The well-known scientists studied and worked in this university: mathematicians MV Ostrogradsky, Lyapunov, Steklov, poet P.P.Gulak-Artemovsky, biologist Mechnikov, a historian NI Kostomarov, composer M. Lysenko, writer MP Starytsky etc.

Novorossiysk University was founded on the initiative of NI Pirogov in Odessa in 1865 on the basis of the Richelieu Lyceum. Since 1933 it is named Odessa University. Activities of the prominent scientists are related to Novorossiysk University: II Mechnikov, IM Sechenova, AO Kovalevsky, EN Shchepkina etc.

Yekaterinoslav Higher Mining School was transformed into the Mining Institute in 1912. During the years 1903-1917 457 people graduated this institute, most of them began to work in the industrial enterprises.

On the territory of Western Ukraine there were 4 higher education institutions until 1918: universities in Lvov and Chernovtsy, Polytechnic Institute and the Academy of Veterinary Medicine in Lvov.
In Simferopol in 1918 training in the Tauride branch of Kiev University began, and in six months Tauride University started its work with the full support and assistance of the Kyiv University.
On the eve of World War II there was the university system in Ukraine, consisting of six classical universities – Kyiv, Kharkov, Lvov, Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk and Chernovtsy universities. Immediately after the war and the joining of Carpathian lands to Ukraine one more high school integrated in the university system – it was Uzhgorod State University, the first university in the Carpathians.
foreign students in USSRIn 1956-1957.there were created medical institutions in Voroshilovgrad and Ternopol, where the part of students from Kiev and Kharkov Medical Institutes were transferred. In 1958 the Mining and Metallurgy Institute in Voroshilov was opened.

Economy of the country constantly needed specialists of new profiles. To meet these needs, the Institutes opened new branches, faculties, departments. Particular attention was paid to the training of engineers in such specialties as instrumentation, electrical engineering, automation and remote control, insulators and semiconductors, industrial electronics, construction and production of radio equipment, industrial automation, manufacturing precast concrete products and designs for construction, design television equipment, production technology synthetic fiber, fur and leather, etc. In 1960-1970 training for many new specialties started, for example  mechanization of accounting and computer operations, maintenance of precision mechanics instrumentation, electro-acoustics and sound engineering, maintenance of electronic machines, optical storage devices, design and operation of nuclear and energy installations, electrical systems, semiconductor materials, thermo physics , cybernetics, technology, polymeric materials, etc. In order to adapt trained graduates in 1972 it was launched a one year traineeship of young professionals in enterprises.

During the period from 1960 to 1980 a number of institutions were reorganized, the new ones were opened. On the basis of Donetsk Pedagogical Institute Donetsk University was created, on the basis of the evening branch of the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute – Voroshilovgrad evening engineering Institute, etc.

higher education in ukraineAfter gaining independence (1991) the own policies in the sphere of higher education began to form in a sovereign Ukraine. It is focused on the achievements of the modern world level, updating of the content, forms and methods of teaching, increasing of the intellectual potential of the country. Currently in Ukraine there are 15 classical universities. In the 90th years there was a trend to the reorganization of the major institutions into the country’s universities. In recent years, a state monopoly in the sphere of higher education was overcome. The universities with different forms of property were created: commercial, private, international, which provide the opportunity to receive higher education for large number of young people.
Having a significant team of the leading scientists and educators, a complex of scientific research and education departments, universities are the major cultural and educational centers. They carry a lot of work in order to spread knowledge and achievements in different spheres of sciences among students, teachers and employers.

6 Responses to “History of Education in Ukraine”

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